Lost Samba Book

I met Richard Klein on a post-production job. Both of us building a roman camp in Maya for a TV series. I overheard Richard playing "Clube Da Esquina" and we got chatting. Richard is a quite a bit my senior - he's around ten years older than me.

He pointed me to this book he had spent a very long time painstakingly writing. It's about his childhood and adolescence growing up in Brazil. A certified head, his frequently wild, vividly-described experiences are set against a backdrop of the music of MPB of the seventies and early eighties. I can thoroughly recommend it - it's quite something to finally get some cultural insight into that era from someone you actually know.

Richard also put together a massive Spotify playlist which covers his favourite Brazilian music of that era and it's really brilliant. I've been discovering some amazing things through like it "Samba Pra Vinicius" by Toquhino and Vinicius and Rita Lee's "Agora E Moda" - too many to mention on a Friday evening.


Two Hot Reissues

Ragnar Grippe's ambient classic "Sand" one of the many highlights of the legendary Shandar catalogue sees a beautiful vinyl reissue. Don't sleep on this one.

Shrinkrap ahoy. And a welcome reissue for Klaus Weiss' "Time Signals" by the Trunk-meister. Always wanted to hear this one. Sterling work Johnny.

Filles De Killimanjaro

Two delightful slices of ultra-modern French Pop - if you can forgive the phonetic English. Jain - Shades of Gainsbourg's afro dalliance or perhaps even a poppy Lizzy Mercier Descloux. The Christine and the Queens - encore un fois with the cool and arty New Wave touches (or is that Nouvelle Vague?). Bloody great videos in both cases.


Break From The Pack

Sleeping Bag Greatest Mixers Compilations

Why was dance music interesting?

There's the implication with a question like this that I don't find dance music interesting any more. I don't know if that's really the case. I do look at Resident Advisor occasionally, like just now, and it seems very sterile - maybe that's just the curse of contemporary graphic design? There is a suffocating sense though of here being a form of entertainment which is wholly codified, one which has ceased forming.

Thinking long and hard about what drew me into dance music, this genre I abandoned, and I came up with a thought. Looking at the long sweep of post-war music culture it seems pretty clear that the 1969-1996 stretch of dance music (bookended by Francis Grasso and Todd Edwards) was, at its strongest, the sublimation of the counter-culture. Sublimation defined by Freud as "a mature type of defense mechanism where socially unacceptable impulses or idealizations are unconsciously transformed into socially acceptable actions or behavior, possibly resulting in a long-term conversion of the initial impulse."

Part and parcel of that is the notion that, in a way that often dance music afficionados find repellent, that it is miscegenated at root with the dionysian impulse of Rock music. Rock's yearning for a crystalline ecstacy is the virus that Disco can't shake off. At times this easier to see for stylistic reasons. Both Larry Levan and Ron Hardy were wide open to Rock and its overcast spirituality. Although I have yet to hear a set from either that wasn't pure disco, there's plenty of anecdotal evidence that'd they play it. Certainly Arthur Russell is unmistakeably a Rock interloper in disco, from his background in The Flying Hearts through to his electric folk opus "World Of Echo".

I've always thought it significant too that Derrick May's first record was the Post-Rock talisman of The Who's "Tommy", that Marshall Jefferson who I fist met with Charles Bullen of This Heat, was a Led Zeppelin fanatic, and that Joey Beltram held a candle for Black Sabbath.

In the UK there's the detente between New Order and Arthur Baker, Be Music and the Hacienda. UK Dance music of course being flooded with the second-string of rhythmic Post-Punkers like Tony Thorpe (400 Blows) and Bill Drummond (Big In Japan). The Mancunian indie-dance of Happy Mondays et al had a degraded reputation of the time, of scallies jumping on a bandwagon - but over time I've come to appreciate their appositeness.

Rock's original conceit is that it functions as Agape, an unmediated relationship, not with social communion, but with nature and the universe itself. At its most spiritual, for instance in the nihilistic abandon of The Stooges' "Dirt", Rock requires its listener to be intimate only with their own body and the caverns within and without it. It's the same sensation people discovered in relative safety, sublimated in the womb of the dancefloor, at The Loft or Labyrynth.

Why did dance music die in 1996?

"Dom Phillips insists that, even more than the 1988 acid house revolution, the real turning point in dance culture came in 1994 when clubbing got dressed up and turned its back on the sweaty rave movement which had spawned it. As if to prove his point club promoters recall 1995 as the year when they made the most money ever." 
Brewster/Broughton "Last Night A DJ Saved My Life"
Imagine a very large maze. Fill that maze with mercury. The mercury rushes into the structure but it fills the deepest corners last. Then quite quickly the mercury starts to seep into cracks and holes. The first places that empty are the large central corridors. Those corridors are House and Techno. The deepest corners, where for a while the mercury lingered in pools, stand for genres like Two-Step and then Grime in the early noughties where the ramifications of acid house house are still being worked out.

The first and most blatantly obvious thing to me as a rabid consumer, a passionate disciple of the music between 1990 and 1996, was the shocking precipice the entire culture fell off mid 1995. If you look at the dates on those mixes alone: 1983-19961986-19941985-1995 that pretty much tells the entire story.

I sat up when I read the quote above in Bill Brewster and Frank Broughton's book because it shon a bright and very unforgiving light on the reason the dance music culture died. There's defintely a distinction between the continuum of music that leads slowly up to the earliest House and Techno and the music in these mixes. That continuum is most easy to witness in the New York music where Disco and Electro flow easily into the new music. Again in Chicago, Frankie Knuckles came directly from the Paradise Garage and Disco. On the other hand in Detroit, Detroit Techno was an updated form of Electro - purely and simply, with Derrick bringing some esoteric Disco flavour back from Ron Hardy in Chicago.

But, yes, as Dom Phillips alleges the real turning point, the true break in the continuum comes in 1994, with the after effects slowly filtering their way through the culture. You can HEAR it in the music. Suddenly in 1996, whatever the major genre, the music sounds dreary, long-winded and the energy has disappeared. I struggled to find great later tracks for all of these mixes.

Of course, the Phillips quote is shorthand for "when it all became about money", when dance music culture became capitalised. That's certainly the inference. It's difficult for me, a debit-card-carrying capitalist, to approach this even-handedly. On the one hand I hear it, but equally when was dance music not engaged in a scruffy and unseemly quest for money? That was certainly what the alliance between organised crime, drug dealers and promoters was all about. Without getting bogged down in nuances I think I'd rather view it as a more subtle and profound shift. It seems to have all been about an adoption of "the culture of money" rather than the involvement of money itself per se.

That's one way to re-order the readings that the critics of the left have woven around culture. Cultural death is not so much about the reduction of everything into the terms of its validity within a capitalist model, a loss of purity of motive; as a frequently misguided, blind belief in the power of capitalism's de facto structures and the sickeningly bland, soul-destroying shit that follows in the wake.

My friend Paul Arden used to complain alot to me about the death of creativity within advertising agencies. The reason was that the producers lost confidence in creativity, an unpredictable chimera that they could never control, and instead placed more and more emphasis into planning and control groups. Into ways in which they work out marketing solutions based on a pseudoscience of what would appeal to their target audiences. The massive irony is that in advertising, raw, entirely crazy, passionate creativity is about 1000% more effective in the marketplace than creativity massaged by committee. Remember the bonkers and luminous commercials of the past?

The same applies to any database-led surveys though. Like those ridiculous massive, double-blind, placebo-controlled medical trials which yield less significant information than well-designed, tiny, control groups. Or even, to chose a wildly different example, how one person's list of great books for teenage boys can be more illuminating than a database collating the habits of millions of readers.

With Dance Music here was a cultural arena which had proved through its vibrancy and popularity that it could make money. The suits got involved. Oh you THOUGHT you were making money, they said. No, no, no. You need to attract a more upmarket group of people. We need to involve BRANDS. Et-bloody-cetera. It probably worked for about 6 months.



One of the key dynamics within music's adoption and dissemination is one in which questions of sound itself are almost entirely absent. It always strikes me as one of the most mystical qualities of music as well. It relates to to both a very sensitive perception of the "grain" of characters as well as a profound understanding of one's own location upon the river of time, one's own mortality. I'd argue that a connection with it implies, too, an implicit sanction of concepts like Jung's Universal Unconscious. I'm talking about "elders", the music made by those people who are older than one which has some intangibly charismatic quality to it, like the bunch of grapes just out of Tantalus' reach.

It's inevitably always a personal thing. It relates to who one's own "elders" are. For me, something like this set by DJ Hype on Fantasy FM (I could have chosen any number of different things to illustrate the point) has the fingerprint. I would have been nineteen but, yeah, Hype would have been unmistakably senior, of an earlier cohort, like the kids only two years ahead of one at school who seemed like distant deities. Possessing of a different but subtly evolved consciousness, of a seemingly unattainable confidence. And that dynamic, in a nutshell, is what drove the "nuum" for twenty years. Young people aspiring to the community status of those two or three years older and the sanction that a nod from these elders imparted. Fabio plays your dubplate. Wiley includes you in Roll Deep. To my mind it also explains the nuum's self-referential quotes, the snatches of earlier nuumological music.

Of course it's precisely the same in Reggae. That's the drive of Shabba's epochal "Respect", on the face of it is a call for building on the foundations of Reggae, the importance of understanding your roots and culture; but I read it more as a clarion call for the youth to respect the dynamic of the "elder". Shabba is saying this sociological system only works, can only continue to work, if we feel the same magical empathy for our seniors. It's the same system which led Dego and Marc Mac to run Reinforced records like a community outreach project. Or indeed like Underground Resistance has always run in Detroit. Or even like the tradition of influence that through Disco from David Mancuso through Larry Levan to Tony Humphries.

At the same time as there exists these organic traditions of seniority in music there will always be examples of hucksters who try, occasionally successfully, to short-circuit this time-honored dynamic. I would argue that grasping the rope of a sonic tradition immediately implies the existence of something greater than one that reaches back in time before one was born, into the mystical realms of the universal unconscious. Recycling a Studio One bass-line, by implication, opens a channel into another realm. What these confidence tricksters, or perhaps they are simply magicians, do is invoke those earlier phases of consciousness. Frequently LSD, or other psychedelics, play a part in their cosmic games.

My favorite example of this must be Van Morison's "Astral Weeks" which, although the work of a young man, time-trips back, sometimes to the very present itself, with the zen-like simplicity of a higher enlightenment that always characterises the insight of an elder. Another perfect example would have to be The Aphex Twin of the early nineties, of Selected Ambient Works 1 and 2 when he was dreaming of the future. Though in Aphex's case I sometimes think his key contribution to twenty-first culture was tonsorial.

If there was ever a proto-hipster beard it was Richard's. Tied up in it from the get-go was a Dr Who-like subterfuge to disrupt time. It was a blatant stab at being the "elder", the one of wisdom and expanded consciousness. That strategy, to disrupt the traditions of secession is precisely what has characterised the Hipster. In many ways that's what Retro is, and was, about. As a cultural marker it denotes enlightenment just as it, somewhat ignorantly and arrogantly and ultimately ineffectually, seeks to tears apart the fabric of time and social justice.